women-img

Legal Basis of Human Rights

Every nation of the world has adopted the universal declaration of human rights for the human respect and dignity. Hennery Steiner has described it as the spiritual parents of other human rights treaties. After World War II, declaration of human rights was adopted on 12th August, 1948. In the year 1976, International Human Rights bill was passed. On 11th August, 1948 Father of Nation Quaid -e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah said before constituent assembly, ‘’Thank God’’ we are starting our days, where there is no discrimination and distinction.

View Details
women-img

Rights of Persons with Disability

The World Health Organization (WHO) introduced Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR) in 1978 following the International Conference on Primary Health Care and Declaration of Alma Ata (Health for All), as a strategy to improve the quality of life of Persons with Disabilities (WHO, SHIA 2002). CBR started as a concept to provide primary rehabilitation services to Persons with Disabilities (PWD) in their own communities. CBR is defined as a strategy for “rehabilitation, equalization of opportunities and social inclusion of all people with disabilities” (WHO, ILO, UNESCO 2004:2). A joint effort of “persons with disabilities, their families, organizations and communities, and the relevant government and non-governmental health, education, vocational, social, and other services” is required for implementation of CBR (WHO, ILO, UNESCO 2004:2). In this sense, CBR is about everyone working together in a community development program to improve the lives of PWD. CBR cuts across all sectors and relies on active participation of relevant government ...

View Details
women-img

Child Labor

International Labour Organization (ILO) defines child labour as work that “is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful to children; and interferes with their schooling by: depriving them of the opportunity to attend school; obligating them to leave school prematurely; or requiring them to attempt to combine school attendance with excessively long and heavy work” (ILO 2013). According to the latest data collected by ILO, there are 168 million children in child labour around the World, declined by one third since 2000, from 246 million. Asia and the Pacific has the largest number, almost 78 million, but Africa continues to be the region with the highest incidence of child labour, 59 million or over 21%. In terms of the sectors where child labourers can be found, agriculture tops the list where 98 million (60 %) children are employed, followed by services 25.6%, industry 7%, and others 7.5% (ILO 2013). In Asia, India has the largest number of child labourers with 44 million children, giving ...

View Details
women-img

Domestic Violence

Domestic violence and emotional abuse are behaviors used by one person in a relationship to control the other. Domestic violence is a pattern of abusive behavior characterized by the intent to gain or maintain power and control over an intimate partner or other family members. The abuse can be established over time and in most cases, it begins subtly with insults, a shove or by alienating the survivor from family and friends. With time, the abusive behavior can be more frequent and severe. One in every four women and one out of every seven men have experienced severe physical violence from an intimate partner at some point in their lifetimes.

View Details
women-img

Violence Against Women

Pakistan is signatory to various International conventions on violence against women. Various articles of the Constitution of Pakistan give protection to the citizens against violence of any kind. These articles include: Article 4 (rights of individuals to enjoy the protection of law), Article 8 (Fundamental Rights), Article 25 (equality before the law), and Article 27 (no discrimination on the basis of sex alone). Pakistan Penal Code (PPC) does not specifically cover domestic violence, but several of its sections can be interpreted to cover instances of such violence. However, it is argued “that domestic abuse is rampant in the country partly due to lack of legislation. This is in effect a refusal by the law to recognize violence in the domestic sphere as a crime” (Kamal, S., 2012). In the absence of a specific law for the prevention of domestic violence, victims found it very difficult to seek redress under the existing laws. The introduction of ...

View Details
women-img

General Issues

It is commonly understood that each and every human is entitled to some rights which cannot be taken away except with due process of law. Human rights are inalienable fundamental rights to which a person is inherently entitled because he or she is a human being. In 539 B.C., the armies of Cyrus the Great, the first king of ancient Persia, conquered the city of Babylon. But it was his next actions that marked a major advance for Man. He freed the slaves, declared that all people had the right to choose their own religion, and established racial equality. These and other decrees were recorded on a baked-clay cylinder in the Akkadian language with cuneiform script. Known today as the Cyrus Cylinder, this ancient record has now been recognized as the world’s first charter of human rights. It is translated into all six official languages of the United Nations ...

View Details
women-img

Girl Education

Education plays critical role in the development of a country, reducing poverty, and helping achieve better standards of living for its citizens. It creates new opportunities for socially and economically deprived sections of the population. Without educating the female population, achievement of better and higher standards of living is not possible. It is now believed that female education increases child schooling (Ray 2000). Girl education increases income, both at the individual as well as at the national levels. Women receive higher returns to their investment in schooling (Psacharopoulos and Patrinos 2002). Female education results in more productive farming and faster economic growth. Educated mothers are more likely to send their children to schools than uneducated ones (Ray 2000). Some studies have found that educating girls leads to smaller and sustainable families (Klasen 1999).

View Details
women-img

Inequality

Notions of equality have been central to earlier pronouncements on development, particularly those reflecting a rights-based approach. The UN General Assembly’s Declaration on the Right to Development in 1986 asserted the existence of inalienable human rights, equality of opportunity for development, and the need for a new economic order based on sovereign equality (UNGA, 1986). Building on this, the 1990s saw a series of conferences and summits, including the United Nationals World Summit for Children (1990), World Conference on Human Rights (Vienna, 1993) and World Summit on Social Development (Copenhagen, 1995), that further established a development discourse centred on rights and equality. Equality is one of the core values of UN Millennium Declaration, as the preamble states the global “collective responsibility to uphold the principles of human dignity, equality and equity at the global level”.

View Details

Let’s Discuss

Join the discussion to share your views on the following topics.

Partners

  • img